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Developmental pathway of somatic embryogenesis from leaf tissues of macaw palm (Acrocomia aculeata) revealed by histological events.

sexta-feira, fevereiro 22, 2019

Histochemical analysis of different lineages of calli and somatic embryos obtained from macaw palm leaf tissues (Acrocomia aculeata) (stained with Lugol).
Authors: Filipe Sathler Meira, Zanderluce Gomes Luis, Inaê Mariê de Araújo Silva-Cardoso, Jonny Everson Scherwinski-Pereira

Abstract: This paper, in an unprecedented way, describes the ontogenesis of calli and somatic embryos of macaw palm (Acrocomia aculeata) from young leaf tissues of adult plants, aiming to elucidate the events underlying the process and consequent optimization of the technique. Leaves were inoculated in a callus induction medium, composed of Y3 salts, 2.5 g L−1 activated charcoal and 450 μM Picloram. For multiplication of the calli, they were separated from the explants and inoculated in a medium with the same composition as the previous phase.

Histological analyses were performed on samples of immature leaves with and without calli at 0, 3, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days in an induction medium, and on samples of the different types of calli and somatic embryos obtained during multiplication and differentiation. For this, the samples were fixed in FAA, dehydrated in an alcohol series and infiltrated in resin. Anatomical sections obtained on a microtome were stained with Toluidine Blue for structural characterization. At 60 days, analyses revealed the formation of callogenic masses in the vicinity of smaller vascular bundles. This multiplication approach allowed for the proliferation of the primary cell mass that evolved into new lineages of calli, especially the embryogenic yellowish nodular lineage, which originated somatic embryos. Additional histochemical analyses showed starch accumulation only in the adjacencies of areas undergoing intense cell division. 

The morpho-anatomic characterization allows the rapid identification of potential calli for the formation of somatic embryos from leaf tissues in macaw palm and promotes future investigations of the participation of vascular tissues in the events that precede somatic embryogenesis.

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