Osteoblastic response to biomaterials surfaces: mineralization evaluation and extracellular matrix proteomic analysis

quinta-feira, janeiro 31, 2019

Resultado de imagem para biomateriais
Author: Graeff, Marcia Sirlene Zardin

Abstract: Dental implants are designed to replace tooth loss, due to periodontal diseases, trauma or decay. Among the biomaterials used for this purpose, titanium and zirconia have been investigated for some years, with excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Surface treatments such as anodizing, with the incorporation of Mg, Ca and P in the structure of the titanium oxide films, were used in order to increase tribocorrosion resistance and improve the osseointegration process. The cellular response to surfaces is mediated, among other factors, by the extracellular matrix (ECM) . However, very little is still known about the ECM proteomics during mineralization. Our objective was a longitudinal comparison of osteoblastic behavior on different materials, in terms of mineralization volume and actin cytoskeleton status, associated with the proteomic analysis of the extracellular matrix. The three types of biomaterial surfaces (pure titanium, anodized titanium and zirconia) were imaged by confocal 3D microscopy and analyzed in terms of roughness. MC3T3 cells were cultivated on the biomaterials for 7, 14 and 21 days, with osteogenic medium containing calcein. The cells were then fixed, stained with Rhodamine phalloidin and DAPI, and imaged by confocal laser scanning microscopy. 

The quantification of mineralization and actin cytoskeleton was performed by a novel technique, based on the acquired 3D images. For the proteomic analysis, the specimens were washed, decellularized and the ECM was collected in buffer solution. The anodized titanium surface is more porous when compared to that of cp-Ti and zirconia, and superior mineralization was obtained over it after 21 days of culture. The actin microtubular volume was increased on the three materials on the first 14 days, but on the 21th day there was a reduction over anodized titanium and zirconia, related to mineralization phase. 

Conclusion: The greater mineralization obtained over anodized titanium after 21 days demonstrated an improved response provided by the surface modification. The innovative volume quantification technique adopted was useful in providing information about the cellular status and biomaterial performance. Alpha-1_4 glucan phosphorylase and Glycogen phosphorylase brain form were down-regulated on zirconia after 7 and 14 days of culture, and up-regulated on Anod Ti on the 7th day, suggesting the influence of material surface roughness and chemical composition on energy metabolism. Proteins related to bone development, like TGF-3, were found exclusively on cp-Ti on the 21st day. The small number of identified proteins demonstrates that the chosen decellularization process was effective at reducing the proteome dataset. Altogether, our results reveal new insights regarding osseointegration and how material surfaces affect this process.

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